Apparent elastic modulus of ex vivo trabecular bovine bone increases with dynamic loading

Vivanco et al.
Although it is widely known that bone tissue responds to mechanical stimuli, the underlying biological control is still not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to validate required methods necessary to maintain active osteocytes and minimize bone tissue injury in an ex vivo three-dimensional model that could mimic in vivo cellular function. The response of 22 bovine trabecular bone cores to uniaxial compressive load was investigated by using the ZETOS bone loading and bioreactor system while perfused with culture medium for 21 days. Two groups were formed, the ‘‘treatment’’ group (n = 12) was stimulated with a physiological compressive strain (4000me) in the form of a ‘‘jump’’ wave, while the ‘‘control’’ group (n = 10) was loaded only during three measurements for apparent elastic modulus on days 3, 10, and 21. At the end of the experiment, apoptosis and active osteocytes were quantified with histological analysis, and bone formation was identified by means of the calcium-binding dye, calcein. It was demonstrated that the treatment group increased the elastic modulus by 61%, whereas the control group increased by 28% (p\0.05). Of the total osteocytes observed at the end of 21 days, 1.7% (60.3%) stained positive for apoptosis in the loaded group, whereas 2.7% (60.4%) stained positive in the control group. Apoptosis in the center of the bone cores of both groups at the end of 21 days was similar to that observed in vivo. Therefore, the three-dimensional model used in this research permitted the investigation of physiological responses to mechanical loads on morphology adaptation of trabecular bone in a controlled defined load and chemical environment.

File: Vivanco_et_al_Apparent_elastic_modulus_of_ex_vivo.pdf

Application of a whole-body pharmacokinetic model for targeted radionuclide therapy to NM404 and FLT

Grudzinski et al. We have previously developed a model that provides relative dosimetry estimates for targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) agents. The whole-body and tumor pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of this model can be noninvasively measured with molecular imaging, providing a means of comparing potential TRT agents. Parameter sensitivities and noise will affect the accuracy and precision of the estimated PK values and hence dosimetry estimates. The aim of this work is to apply a PK model for TRT to two agents with different magnitudes of clearance rates, NM404 and FLT, explore parameter sensitivity with respect to time and investigate the effect of noise on parameter precision and accuracy. Twenty-three tumor bearing mice were injected with a ‘slow-clearing’ agent, 124I-NM404 (n = 10), or a ‘fast-clearing’ agent, 18FFLT (3-deoxy-3-fluorothymidine) (n = 13) and imaged via micro-PET/CT pseudo-dynamically or dynamically, respectively. Regions of interest were drawn within the heart and tumor to create time-concentration curves for blood pool and tumor. PK analysis was performed to estimate the mean and standard error of the central compartment efflux-to-influx ratio (k12/k21), central elimination rate constant (kel), and tumor influx-to-efflux ratio (k34/k43), as well as the mean and standard deviation of the dosimetry estimates. NM404 and FLT parameter estimation results were used to analyze model accuracy and parameter sensitivity. The accuracy of the experimental sampling schedule was compared to that of an optimal sampling schedule found using Cramer–Rao lower bounds theory. Accuracy was assessed using correlation coefficient, bias and standard error of the estimate normalized to the mean (SEE/mean). The PK parameter estimation of NM404 yielded a central clearance, kel (0.009 ± 0.003 h−1), normal body retention, k12/k21 (0.69 ± 0.16), tumor retention, k34/k43 (1.44 ± 0.46) and predicted dosimetry, Dtumor (3.47 ± 1.24 Gy). The PK parameter estimation of FLT yielded a central elimination rate constant, kel (0.050 ± 0.025 min−1), normal body retention, k12/k21 (2.21 ± 0.62) and tumor retention, k34/k43 (0.65 ± 0.17), and predicted dosimetry, Dtumor (0.61 ± 0.20 Gy). Compared to experimental sampling, optimal sampling decreases the dosimetry bias and SEE/mean for NM404; however, it increases bias and decreases SEE/mean for FLT. For both NM404 and FLT, central compartment efflux rate constant, k12, and central compartment influx rate constant, k21, possess mirroring sensitivities at relatively early time points. The instantaneous concentration in the blood, C0, was most sensitive at early time points; central elimination, kel, and tumor efflux, k43, are most sensitive at later time points. A PK model for TRT was applied to both a slowclearing, NM404, and a fast-clearing, FLT, agents in a xenograft murine model. NM404 possesses more favorable PK values according to the PK TRT model. The precise and accurate measurement of k12, k21, kel, k34 and k43 will translate into improved and precise dosimetry estimations. This work will guide the future use of this PK model for assessing the relative effectiveness of potential TRT agents.

File: Grudzinski_et_al_Application_of_a_whole-body_pharmacokinetic.pdf